Kidneys in the human body play an important role in filtering blood, and removing surplus fluids, toxins, as well as, waste. Kidneys also help in the stimulation of red blood cells and keep the human bones strong and healthy. Kidneys also help in the regulation of blood chemicals as well as blood pressure. Chronic kidney disease is actually a condition in which the human kidneys are not able to filter the blood normally and are typically damaged. Because of damaging to the kidneys, the waste as well as excessive fluid in the blood remains and causes other problems of health to the human body such as, stroke, heart disease, etc. On the kidney function levels, chronic kidney disease is mainly divided into five different stages and there is an association of different symptoms as well as treatment with every stage. Physicians or doctors determine the stage of chronic kidney disease on the basis of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) which is a formula in which the patient’s gender, age, and serum creatinine level are used.
Five stages of chronic kidney disease
Doctors determine the stage of kidney disease using the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), a math formula using a person’s age, gender, and their serum creatinine level (identified through a blood test). Creatinine, a waste product that comes from muscle activity, is a key indicator of kidney function. When kidneys are working well they remove creatinine from the blood; but as kidney function slows, blood levels of creatinine rise.
In stage 1 of chronic kidney disease, there seems mild damage to the human kidney. By chance, CKD at this got discovered during urine as well as a blood test.
- When there seems a proper function of the kidney at approximately 90%, there seem no symptoms at this stage.
- The treatment allows you to follow the advice of your physician or doctor and if hypertension persists, it is mandatory to lower this as early as possible. Diet plays an important role and it is necessary to focus on a balanced diet only. Avoid the usage of smoking and tobacco at this stage. If possible, try to do only 30 minutes physical exercise.
There seems a mild kidney function loss at this stage.
- At stage 2 of chronic kidney disease, non-specific symptoms such as weakness, loss of appetite, fatigue, sleep problems and itching are seen.
- Cessation of smoking is important at this stage and it is good to recover this stage as early as possible by following the advice of a doctor. Manage heart disease and blood pressure if you are the victim of these diseases according to the doctor’s advice.
Stage 3 is divided into 3A and 3B. In stage 3A, the function of the kidney seems to be between 45 and 59%. In stage 3B, the function of the kidney seems to be between 30 and 44%.
- The symptoms include loss of appetite, back pain, weakness, excessive or low urination than usual, persistent itching, fatigue and swelling (hands & feet).
- For the preservation of the function of kidneys, it is necessary to manage different conditions at this stage such as, high blood pressure take (ACE inhibitors), cholesterol-lowering medicines, for the relieving of retention of fluid (low salt diet and diuretics), if anemia persists take (erythropoietin) and always try to take low protein diet in order to lower the workload on your kidneys.
At this stage, kidney damage is at a moderate to severe level. They seem to function between 15 and 29%. This means that the human body’s kidneys are building up more fluids, toxins, as well as, wastes at this stage.
- Symptoms include, muscle cramps or twitches, decrease mental sharpness in the human body, chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, excessive or less urination than usual, persistent itching, loss of appetite, hands & feet swelling, and back pain.
- The treatment of stage 4 chronic kidney disease is the same as earlier stages treatment, it is necessary to start discussing about the kidney transplant or dialysis, if your kidney starts to fail.
Stage 5 is the last stage of kidney and kidney failure occurs at this stage. The working capacity of the kidney is only 15% at this stage. When this occurs, the building up of toxins, as well as wastes, becomes life-threatening so this is called end-stage renal disease.
- Kidney failure symptoms include, loss or no appetite, muscle cramps or twitches, breathing problems, decreased mental sharpness, trouble sleeping, persistent itching, hands and feet swelling, fatigue, chest pain, back pain, and severe weakness.
- The life expectancy of kidney failure is only a month or a few without a kidney transplant or dialysis. Dialysis is not the proper cure but it only removes fluid and waste from the blood of the human body.